General Diagnostic Tests for Cancer

Blood Sample Testing
Tumor markers are released in the blood stream, which can be identified through blood tests; blood test is also responsible for Hemogram through blood count.
Majority of the cancer patient’s exhibit anemia with low RBC and Hemoglobin. There is elevated levels serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Leukemic
cases shows poor coagulation or blood clotting.

Endoscopy is a non-surgical procedure where the doctor uses an instrument (a flexible tube with a camera and light attached to it) to look and examine the interior of
the hollow organ or body cavity. Through endoscopy, the doctor or surgeon will be able to observe inside the patient's upper part of gastrointestinal or digestive tract
on a color TV monitor.

Colonoscopy is a procedure where the doctor uses a flexible tube with a camera and light attached to it looking inside the lining of large intestine (colon and rectum).
Through colonoscopy, your doctor will be able to observe any colon polyps, ulcers, bleeding or inflammatory areas as well as any tumors within the large intestine.

This screening test or mammogram is an x-ray image of your breast to find out if there is a lump or any other signs of breast cancer. Mammogram is an important
screening test to detect and treat breast cancer early in order to prevent breast cancer mortalities.

Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing
These tests help detecting the abnormal cells within the cervical area and treat them early in order to avoid cervical cancer. These tests are usually recommended to
start at age of 21 and to end at age of 65.

Certain types of cancers like prostate, urethral, Renal tumors causes hematuria (blood in the urine). Renal function test shows deterioration of function combined with
infection of urinary tract.

Bone Marrow Aspiration
Bone marrow aspiration plays a vital role in finding out the proliferating tumor cells in the marrow. Bone marrow is responsible for blood production. If one finds
marrow depression or tumor cells with marrow cells, then it is a positive sign for cancer diagnosis. A bone marrow is removed by a marrow aspiration needle on pelvic
bone and subjected to laboratory assay for marrow cells or abnormal proliferation of cancer cells in the marrow.

A biopsy is a small sample of a specific (affected) tissue that is scraped out by a needle called biopsy needle. It is used in case of localized tumors, oral cancer,
skin cancer, testicular, breast cancer, etc where the pathology shows abnormal enucleated cells which look different from the normal cells. Biopsy can be Fine
needle aspiration biopsy, Core needle biopsy, Vacuum-assisted biopsy, Image-guided biopsy, and surgical biopsy.

Imaging studies
MRI, X-ray, CAT scan and micro imaging studies reveal in detail about exact site, growth pattern, and extent of cancer spread.


Cancer Society of America | Understanding Cancer | Cause, Symptoms & Risk Factors of Cancer | Cancer Diagnosis | Cancer Prevention, Early Detection & Treatment




Be CAUTIOUN about cancer. You wonder what is CAUTION? It is the
common quotation board placed on every board and unit of oncology
centers. Diagnosing cancer involves few hurdles and confusions as

  •  Most patients remain with no symptom till third stage of cancer.
  •  Most cases are misdiagnosed as some sort of simple edema, mass
     or a polyp which really makes a doctor misunderstand or misread
           that it could be cancer.
  •  Majority of the cancer diagnosis are unexpected and surprised.
  •  Metastasis of cancer cells makes difficult for doctors to find out
     exactly which organ is being affected and which one is not!
     Often a doctor ends uphaving a partial diagnosis because of this phenomenon.
  •  Facilities are the major concern in some hospitals as we need sophisticated oncological laboratory..

CAUTION; Criteria for cancer diagnosis, It  is an acronym explained as follows:
  • C stands for change in bowel or bladder pattern and activities,
  • A stands for a sore that does not heal,
  • U stands for unusual bleeding or discharge,
  • T stands for signs of thickening in some part of the body like breast,
  • I means Indigestion,
  • O is Obvious change in the size, color or shape of a mole or mass,
  • N means Nagging, cough or hoarseness.

The diagnosis of a cancer could be in fact a most shocking news to anyone, because of the nature of disease, complex symptoms,
virulence of illness, a dangerous  process called metastasis throughout body, yet cancer can be diagnosed successfully through a series
of tests and biochemical assays. Some of the common tests and diagnostic criterion are explained below. Broadly speaking cancer
diagnosis can be done under general examination and specific tests for specific tumors.



Diagnosis of Cancer

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